Causes of cell injury

on 10.3.09 with 0 comments

  • Hypoxia, ischemia

    • brain; heart: atherosclerosis, a process that advances as you get older

  • Nutrition

    • too little (developing countries) or too much (developed countries)

  • Genetic disease

    • sickle-cell disease, the molecular basis of which was defined when Dr. Baird was in medical school

    • Tay-Sachs, for which screening can now be performed

    • Gaucher’s disease, of which there are three different forms

Ischemic changes in cells

  • Ca leaks into cells, uncoupling ox phos and causing further damage

  • you basically need to know it at the level of this diagram, which is found in the book

  • leukocyte recruitment further damages cells because leukocytes excrete hyperactive oxygen radicals

  • Physical agents

    • heat

    • cold

    • bullets

    • sports

  • Infections agents

    • viruses

    • bacteria

    • fungi

    • prions, which are alternative folding patterns of proteins

  • Autoimmunity

    • antibodies

      • autoimmune hemolytic anemia

      • erythroblastosis fetalis: Rh antigen and maternal anti-Rh, anti-fetus antibodies

      • lupus erythematosus: antibodies against DNA; potential exposure was in bone marrow (10% of RBCs are defective and are turned over; nuclear material leaks out)

    • T cells

      • involved in graft rejection

      • also play a role in polio, where most of the destruction of neurons is via the polio virus; however, if T cells are turned on, they kill the virus-producing factories—namely, the neurons, which can’t regenerate

      • hepatitis B: hepatocytes are destroyed

Category: Medical Subject Notes , Pathology Notes



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