HIV - Kaposi's Sarcoma - Late clinical manifestations

on 23.12.09 with 0 comments

Dark brown (on black skin) or purplish plaques and nodules (on white skin) on the skin or reddish-purple elevations in the mouth indicate Kaposi's sarcoma. This is a cancer that can affect any part of the body (lung, intestine, eye etc.) in AIDS patients, in contrast to the so called endemic Kaposi in Africa, which develops slowly and usually causes lesions only on the feet and legs. [Note: The disease was first described in 1872 by Moritz Kaposi, a Hungarian dermatologist. The disease is encountered principally in persons from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean basin]. Kaposi's sarcoma thus occurs less frequently in Southeast Asia than in Africa. Since Kaposi's sarcoma occurs much more frequently in homosexual men than in patients infected with HIV via blood, an infectious cause was suspected. Kaposi's sarcoma also occurs more frequently in HIV-negative transplant patients. Immunosuppression appears to be needed for expression of the agent. A new herpes virus genome (KSHV [Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpes-like Virus] or HHV-8 [human herpes virus 8]) was found in the DNA of Kaposi's sarcoma cells and certain lymphomas. This virus apparently has a causal role in these cancers (and also in a variant of Castleman’s disease, a lymphoproliferative disease of B-cells). The virus is found in sperm, though much higher concentrations occur in saliva. This virus is also suspected of playing a role in pulmonary hypertension, but more research is needed.

Note: herpes viruses
KSHV is the first known human virus of the genus Rhadinovirus (γ2-herpes virus). Other related viruses have been found in simians (monkeys and humanoid apes). In summary: herpes viruses are divided into several groups:
  • α-herpes virus, e.g. Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Varicella zoster virus (= HHV3)
  • β-herpes virus, e.g. Cytomegalovirus (HHV5), Roseolovirus (= HHV6) and HHV7
  • γ1-herpes virus, e.g. Epstein-Barr virus (= HHV4)
  • γ2-herpes virus, e.g. Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpes Virus (HHV8)

Category: Medical Subject Notes , Medicine Notes



Post a Comment