on 12.12.08 with 0 comments

Know the causes (table 22-1 p.999 Robbins) & consequences of ureteral obstruction.
  • causes

intrinsic: calculi, strictures, tumorous masses, blood clots, neurogenic causes

extrinsic: pregnancy, periureteral inflammation, endometriosis, tumors

  • consequences--hydroureter, hydronephrosis, sometimes pyelonephritis

Know sites where stones are most frequently impacted in the ureter.

  • places of ureteral narrowing--uretoro-pelvic junction, where ureters cross iliac vessels, & where they enter bladder

Know the possible causes of retroperitoneal fibrosis.

  • drugs (ergot derivatives, β-adrenergic, β-blockers), adjacent inflammatory conditions (vasculitis, diverticulitis, Chron's disease), or malignant disease (lymphomas, urinary tract carcinomas)

  • 70% of cases--no obvious cause; considered 1º or idiopathic

Know the gross pathology of ureteritis cystica (Robbins fig 22-1 p 999).

  • smooth cysts projecting from the mucosa; 1-5 mm; cysts may aggregate to form small, grape-like clusters

Category: Pathology Notes



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